A History of the Middle East by Peter Mansfield

By Peter Mansfield

The definitive historical past of the center East, completely revised and up to date via 2012

some of the most the most important, unstable, and intricate areas of the fashionable international, the center East has lengthy confounded the goals of conquerors and peacemakers alike. This now-classic publication, absolutely up-to-date to 2012 and nonetheless the fundamental paintings at the topic, follows the historical struggles of the center East from Napoleon’s crusade in Egypt and Syria, during the gradual decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire, to the Israeli-Palestinian clash and the background of Islam and its fresh resurgence.

For this fourth variation, Economist correspondent Nicolas Pelham contributes an in depth new part interpreting contemporary advancements through the heart East, together with the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, the placement in Iran, the region’s kinfolk with the USA less than President Obama, the Arab Spring, and more.

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Fourth edition / revised and updated by Nicolas Pelham. pages cm ISBN 978-0-698-15659-3 1. Middle East—History—19th century. 2. Middle East—History—20th century. I. Pelham, Nicolas. II. Title. M36 2013 956—dc23 2013019936 To Luis Cañizares Contents List of Maps Foreword to the Third Edition 1. Introduction: from Ancient to Modern 2. Islam on the Defensive, 1800– 3. Muhammad Ali’s Egypt: Ottoman Rival 4. The Struggle for Reform, 1840–1900 5. Britain in Egypt, 1882–1914 6. Turks and Arabs 7. The Persian Factor 8.

But the crusader states were not content with mere tolerated survival. They became embroiled with their neighbours, and eventually caused the divided Muslim states to unite in a jihad or holy war against them. In 1187 the Kurdish leader Saladin recovered Jerusalem (and, in contrast to the crusaders eighty-eight years previously, spared the lives of those who surrendered). Further crusades were launched in the following century which enabled the diminished Christian states on the coast of Syria and Palestine to survive for a time, but after little more than two centuries they had disappeared.

This has a significant bearing on the modern history of the region. The triumph of the Umayyads not only caused a split in Islam: it made Damascus the capital of the new Arab/Islamic Empire. After a century, in AD 750, the defeat of the Umayyads by the Abbasids, a rival revolutionary movement based in east Persia, shifted the centre of power to Baghdad, inaugurating the Golden Age of Islam – one of the highest peaks of human civilization. In the vast territories in which Islam was triumphant, two processes – allied but not identical – began to operate: ‘arabization’ and ‘islamization’.

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