By Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos
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Extra info for Anaerobic reactors
Non-biological removal of COD Non-biological mechanisms of removal of soluble COD usually occur in biological sewage treatment systems, through their incorporation either in the sludge or in the particulate fraction lost with the efﬂuent. In these cases, the percentage of removal of ﬁltered COD will include a portion of COD eliminated by nonbiological insolubility. Two main mechanisms contribute to that: precipitation and adsorption: Precipitation usually results from changes in the pH or from the addition of calcium-based alkaline compounds, for pH control.
2. 3. 3) of stationary support mediums, as is the case of ﬁxed bed anaerobic reactors. The surfaces of the medium serve as support for the attached bacterial growth (formation of the bioﬁlm), while the empty spaces in the packing material are occupied by microorganisms that grow dispersely. 3 EVALUATION OF THE MICROBIAL MASS The determination of the biomass in anaerobic digesters presents two main difﬁculties: (i) in some systems, the microorganisms are attached to small inert particles; and (ii) the biomass is usually present as a consortium of different morphologic and physiologic types.
If the biogas is intended to be used, an additional cost should be estimated for its puriﬁcation. The presence of sulﬁde causes a high demand for oxygen in the efﬂuent, as well as bad odour problems. A post-treatment phase for sulﬁde removal may be necessary. For the same amount of organic material present in the waste, the sulfate reduction decreases the amount of methane produced. 17). 17) It is noted that 1 mole of SO4 2− requires two moles of oxygen for its reduction to sulﬁde. 0 COD ratio).