By American Petroleum Institute
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Extra info for API 2L Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Construction Heliports for Fixed Offshore Platforms
Condition 3: Column connected to members that do not provide more than nominal restraint to rotation. 58 IStructE EC2 (Concrete) Design Manual Fig. 23 for various environments. 23 gives, in addition, the concrete class strengths that have to be specified in the UK so that requirements (a) and (b) are satisfied. 23 will often require cement contents that are higher than those given in the Table. The potential problems of increased shrinkage arising from high cement and water contents should be considered in the design.
8 1. Values may be interpolated. 2. 8. 3. For spans exceeding 7m, other than for flat slabs, supporting partitions liable to be damaged by excessive deflections, the value should be multiplied by 7/span (in metres). 4. The above assumes ƒyk = 460N/mm2. If other values of ƒyk are used then multiply the above by 460/ƒyk. 5. As/bd is calculated at the location of maximum span moment. 6. 5/span. 3 should be multiplied by the spacing of the ribs to obtain the shear force per rib. The shear stress should be calculated from iSd = 1000 VSd bwd where: VSd = design shear stress in N/mm2 VSd = design shear force arising from design ultimate loads per rib in kN bw = average width of the rib in mm d = effective depth in mm.
The length of the cantilever should be less than half the adjacent span. 3. The actual flange width should be used where it is less than the value obtained from the Table. 52 IStructE EC2 (Concrete) Design Manual Fig. 14 Beam sections Fig. 15 Distribution of reinforcement in flanged beam Maximum area of reinforcement Neither the area of the tension reinforcement, nor the area of compression reinforcement should exceed 4% of the area of concrete. Minimum areas of bars in the side face of beams (to control cracking) Where the overall depth of the beam exceeds 1000mm, and the main reinforcement is concentrated in only a small proportion of the depth, reinforcement should be provided in the side faces of the beam to control cracking.