Arab National Media and Political Change: “Recording the by Fatima El-Issawi

By Fatima El-Issawi

This e-book examines the evolution of nationwide Arab media and its interaction with political switch, really in rising democracies within the context of the Arab uprisings. Investigated from a journalistic point of view, this examine addresses the function performed by means of conventional nationwide media in consolidating rising democracies or in exacerbating their fragility inside of new political contexts. additionally analyzed are the methods reporters record approximately politics and modifications of those media industries, drawing at the overseas studies of media in transitional societies. This research builds on a box research led through the writer and carried out in the venture “Arab Revolutions: Media Revolutions,” overlaying Libya, Tunisia, and Egypt.

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96. ,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC, 2013. 97. org/report/freedompress/2009/libya. 98. Reporters Without Borders, “The Birth of ‘Free Media’ in Eastern Libya,” April 2011. 99. Fatima El Issawi, “Libya Media Transition: Heading to the Unknown,” POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2013, 14. 100. , 20–22. 101. Ibid. 102. The country has witnessed two major military operations: the so called “Dignity” operation in the East led by General Hafter claiming to fight Islamic groups and the operation “Dawn Libya” in the West led by Islamic factions who took control over Tripoli and forced the elected parliament and government out of the capital.

Tripoli newspapers are no longer published in paper form due to a strike in July 2014 by staff of the printing houses. 114 State television and radio stations are controlled and sometimes directly managed by factions and armed militias (see Chapter 5 on state media). New channels launched in the capital, such as the February Channel, Libya Panorama, Zintan Channel, Tribes Channel, and Libya 24 Channel, offer no clear information regarding their 36 F. 115 Most private TV channels that are still broadcasting suffer from continuous reshuffling and shifts in their staff, many of whom are forced to resign for fear of retaliation.

After Mubarak resignation, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces acted as the interim government. The council suspended the 1971 constitution and organised a constitutional referendum on nine new articles to the constitution that was held on 19 March 2011. It was proclaimed by SCAF on 23 March. 76. Fatima El Issawi, “Egyptian Media Under Transition”. 77. Ibid. 78. com/en/almasryalyoumen/ 1347611. 79. org/news/2014/11/17/egypt-unprecedented-expansionmilitary-courts. 80. pdf. 81. Ibid. 82. Ibid.

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