By Jon B. Orbaek, Jon B. Orbaek;Roland Kallenborn;Ingunn Tombre;Else N. Hegseth;Stig Falk-Petersen;Alf H. Hoel
The ecu Arctic and Alpine areas are experiencing huge environmental alterations. elevated temperatures and precipitation, aid in sea ice and glacier ice, the elevated point of UV-radiation and the long-range transported contaminants are demanding new tension elements for either terrestrial and aquatic organisms. the big annual version within the actual parameters of those severe environments is additionally a key think about structuring the biodiversity and biotic productiveness, and the impression of the tension elements should be serious for the inhabitants buildings and the interplay among species. those adjustments can also have socio-economic results if the adjustments have an effect on the bioproduction, which shape the foundation for the marine and terrestrial meals chains. This booklet offers an built-in review of the modern environmental adjustments in Arctic, Alpine areas; weather switch and atmosphere reaction, lengthy diversity shipping of toxins and Ecotoxicology, UV-radiation and organic results, Socio-economic results of Environmental Change.
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Additional resources for Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment (2007)(en)(434s)
Climate variability appears to have caused relatively rapid shifts in the organisation of Arctic marine ecosystems. In the Bering Sea ecosystem and the Barents Sea ecosystem climate-driven variability is significant (Sakshaug and Slagstad 1992). There are difficulties, however, in determining what biological changes in marine ecosystems are due to natural environmental fluctuations or human activities. In the eastern Bering Sea upper trophic levels have undergone significant changes in the past 100-150 years, largely due in part to commercial exploitation of mammals, fish and invertebrates (ACIA 2005).
Chap. 18) have made several numerical experiments elucidating the spatial structure of contaminant spreading by water from potential sources in different parts of the coastal zone of the Arctic seas. The experiments have been carried out to estimate the transport of passive tracers by water and ice from potential sources of contaminants in the Arctic Ocean, especially from potential pollutant sources in the vicinity of river-mouths of major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean (Pavlov and Pavlov 1999).
In their Assessment Model for UV Radiation and Risks (AMOUR), Slaper et al. (Chap. 16) evaluate the full source-risk chain from production and emission of halocarbons, the resulting stratospheric ozone depletion with changes in ambient effective UV doses, and the corresponding skin cancer risks. Updating his previous analysis of the kind (Slaper et al. 1996), the new model also takes into account the role of climate and ozone interactions in the arctic region on the future risks at mid-latitudes in densely populated areas in Europe.