Biomass crops : production, energy and the environment by Alfred P. Haggerty

By Alfred P. Haggerty

Within the power undefined, biomass refers to organic fabric which might be used as gasoline or for business creation. Biomass contains plant topic grown to be used as biofuel, in addition to plant or animal subject used for construction of fibres, chemical substances or warmth. This booklet offers present examine within the learn of biomass vegetation, together with the conversion of wooden into liquid fuels; alfalfa biomass creation; gasification of biomass in aqueous media and biofuel creation power.

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Corrosion and Acidity Owing to the formation of carboxylic acids during the thermal degradation of biomass components, primarily acetic and formic acid, pyrolysis oils have very low pH values (usually 2-3) and are highly corrosive to conventional construction materials (carbon steel, aluminum, plastics and elastomers). , 2007). Hence, the oil has to be stored and transported in acid-proof materials like stainless steel or Conversion of Wood into Liquid Fuels 39 polyolefins. Any other elements that are in contact with the oil during processing and energy generation (fuel lines, pipework, vessels, gaskets, burners, nozzles, pistons, combustion chambers, blades, etc) also need to be resistant to acid corrosion (Diebold, 2000; Pootakham and Kumar, 2010).

The inclusion of an element in the spout-annulus interface holding the annulus region, called draft tube, stabilizes the functioning of the reactor, reducing its limitations for scaling up. , 1999). Spouted beds provide good mixing and very efficient bed material contact. , 1994). They are especially useful for applications where irregular, sticky or coarse particles, such as biomass, need to be dealt with vigorously. The research center Ikerlan-IK4 (Ikerlan website, 2010) has developed a biomass fast pyrolysis pilot plant based on a draft tube Conical Spouted Bed reactor in an attempt to demonstrate the performance of this technology and obtain experimental know-how for scaling up.

These cyclones remove most of the entrained solid char particles. Liquid recovery, after the cyclone system, is performed using a light hydrocarbon spray. The condensable vapor portion of the gases is cooled and collected in a product tank. Quench liquid goes through an air cooled heat exchanger and is then recycled to the spray tower. The remaining aerosols are separated from the non-condensable gases with coalescence filters. Aerosols coalesce into tiny droplets which gather and drip down to an oil pot.

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