Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World's by Carol Off

By Carol Off

Award-winning writer and broadcaster Carol Off finds the interesting -- and infrequently frightening -- tales at the back of our wish for all issues chocolate.

Whether it's a part of a Hallowe'en haul, the contents of a heart-shaped field or simply a sweet bar stashed in a table drawer, chocolate is synonymous with pleasures either easy and lavish. yet at the back of the candy picture is a protracted historical past of exploitation. within the eighteenth century the ecu aristocracy went wild for the Aztec delicacy. In later years, colonial territories have been ravaged and slaves imported in droves as local populations died out lower than the stress of feeding the world's urge for food for chocolate.

Carol Off strains the origins of the cocoa craze and follows chocolate's evolution less than such overseers as Hershey, Cadbury and Mars. In Côte d'Ivoire, the West African state that produces approximately half the world's cocoa beans, she follows a depressing and hazardous seam of greed. opposed to a backdrop of civil battle and corruption, desperately bad farmers interact in appalling practices akin to the indentured servitude of younger boys -- young ones who don't even comprehend what chocolate tastes like.

Off indicates that, with the complicity of Western governments and companies, unethical practices proceed to thrive. sour Chocolate is a social heritage, a passionate investigative account and an eye-opening exposé of the workings of a multi-billion buck that has institutionalized distress because it served our pleasures.

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S. firms lost the dominant position they had held in 1960. S. spirits firms disappeared, wines firms such as E. & J. Gallo (Gallo) and Constellation Brands (previously called Canandaigua) flourished, ensuring that the United States continued to be home to a major alcoholic beverages industry. S. firms, only Anheuser-Busch, Brown Forman, Constellation Brands, and Gallo, all family controlled, survived independently until the beginning of the twenty-first century. National Distillers, the world’s largest alcoholic beverages firm in 1912,6 was acquired by American Brands in 1985 (renamed Fortune Brands in 1997), which had owned Jim Beam since 1966.

Buckley and Mark C. Casson, “Analyzing Foreign Market Entry Strategies: Extending the Internalization Approach,” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3 (1998): 539–62. John H. Dunning is the pioneer in the development of international business, having produced the first post–World War II academic monograph on international business – American Investment in British Manufacturing Industry. In his subsequent publications over four decades, he has unrivalled mastery of empirical evidence in all fields of international business.

P. W. Moreland, “Alternative Disciplinary Mechanisms in Different Corporate Systems,” Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, Vol. 26 (1995): 19. Geoffrey Jones, “Corporate Governance and British Industry,” Entreprises et Histoire, No. 21 (1999): 29–43. Alfred D. ), European Business Systems. P1: SBT 0521833974c01 CUNY871A/Lopes 12 0 521 83397 3 August 31, 2007 15:24 Global Brands cosmetics, or consulting, the national systems perspectives are not sufficient to explain the evolution of their ownership and control.

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