By Michael Bamberger
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Extra resources for Case studies of project sustainability: implications for policy and operations from Asian experience
23 Rate of return estimations have also been criticized for ignoring environmental impacts outside the project area (such as the drying-up of dug wells as a result of the lowering of the water table produced by deep well construction in irrigation projects). Dunu Roy (1984-85) cites the example of a social forestry project in India where the 11-year repayment period encouraged the planting of fast-growing eucalyptus which generate rapid increases in income, but which cannot be used for fodder, and which meant that the economic balance between cattle and forestry could not be sustained over the long run.
For some kinds of projects (for example, housing or road construction), the intended project Page 8 lifetime may be as long as 30 years or considerably shorter for others. The success of a project must be assessed in terms of its ability to sustain this flow of benefits over time. This suggests a distinction between whether a project has been sustained up to the time it is studied (often around five years after it has begun to operate) and whether it is likely to be sustainable over its intended lifetime.
Reduced accessibility of certain groups to project benefits. ) is reduced often negatively affects the economically, socially, or politically weaker groups of intended beneficiaries. 12 Low priority of long-term institutional development objectives. Many development projects are designed as pilot projects to test new approaches to service delivery and Page 7 economic and social development. A key objective is to replicate successful projects on a larger scale. This requires the provision of technical assistance and financial resources to create or strengthen organizations at the community, local, and central government levels, which will enable the design and implementation of these follow-up projects.