By Christine McKinnon
This publication argues that the query posed through advantage theories, particularly, "what form of individual should still I be?" presents a extra promising method of ethical questions than do both deontological or consequentialist ethical theories the place the worry is with what activities are morally required or permissible. It does so either through arguing that there are less attackable theoretical foundations for advantage theories, and via persuasively suggesting the prevalence of advantage theories over deontological and consquentialist theories at the query of explaining morally undesirable habit. advantage theories can provide a richer account by way of attractive to the types of tendencies that ensure undesirable offerings seem appealing. This richer account additionally exposes yet another benefit of advantage theories: they supply the easiest sorts of motivations for brokers to turn into higher people.
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Extra resources for Character, Virtue Theories, and the Vices
Parfit characterizes telic egalitarianism by two conditions. The first is the principle of equality, according to which it is in itself bad if some people are worse off than others. The second is the principle of utility, according to which it is in itself better if people are better off. These two conditions typically constitute telic egalitarianism. There are various ways to formulate telic egalitarianism. 4 According to this formula, the relative goodness of states of affairs is given by (a) the average of the two people’s well-being and (b) the difference between the two people’s well-being, normalized twice by the number of people.
Nozick would support this weak thesis because, as we saw in chapter 1, his side-constraints theory tolerates the ranking of possible distributions on the basis of interpersonal aggregation insofar as there is no violation of individual rights. His theory merely constrains aggregation when the act based on aggregation is to violate a person’s rights. If the argument from counterexamples ever serves as a ground for criticizing interpersonal aggregation, then the weak thesis is uncontroversial. Some critics seem to go further and support what I call the strong thesis.
40 T H E S T R U C T U R E O F A G G R E G AT I O N Maximin satisfies continuity. Therefore, it can be represented by a real-valued function. More specifically, Maximin ranks states of affairs, and the relative goodness is represented in such a way that a state of affairs x = (w1 , w2 , . . , wn ) is at least as good as another state of affairs y = (w1 , w2 , . . , wn ) if and only if min(w1 , w2 , . . , wn ) ≥ min(w1 , w2 , . . , wn ). Maximin and Leximin look similar. They are both nonaggregative.