By David Burgess (auth.)
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The colour can be reduced by adding small amounts of selenium or, more generally, antimony and manganese compounds. The presence of alumina (AI20 3) improves chemical durability (as in Roman glasses) and reduces the tendency to crystallise during formation. Although a hard, brittle substance, resembling many minerals, glass is more closely allied to a highly viscous liquid, from a scientific point of view. It does not have a regular crystal lattice typical of a solid. The term 'glass' is, in fact, descriptive of a physical state rather than of a substance; many other substances, including polymers and even certain metals, can also exist in a glassy state.
It is difficult to imagine the modem world without the glass needed for windows in buildings and in most forms of transport, spectacles, scientific instruments (microscopes, telescopes, thermometers), food containers, light bulbs and tubes, laboratory glassware. No other substance has ever fully replaced glass, or seems at present likely to do so. It is not known precisely when and where glass was first used; it seems likely that it has been made for at least 5000 years and probably much longer.
Evans, An Introduction to Metallic Corrosion) 47 Dissolved oxygen is converted to hydroxide ions at the scale surface, somewhat as follows: (Note that in a galvanic cell the anode loses electrons and the cathode gains electrons, in contradistinction to the anode and cathode in electrolysis. ) The product ions diffuse away and react to form iron(II) hydroxide, which is readily oxidised to iron(III) hydroxide, or yellow rust. The composition of this actually resembles that of the mineral goethite, FeO·OH: O2 Fe 2+(aq) + 20H-(aq) ~ Fe(OHh(s) ~ FeO·OH(s) With a limited oxygen supply, the product may be a green mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) hydroxides, or black as a result of the presence of anhydrous magnetite, Fe304.