Christopher Columbus: Explorer of the New World by Sue Etherington

By Sue Etherington

Choked with first-hand bills, this booklet is an eyewitness consultant to Columbus's voyages of explorations. images, story-telling, pull-out info and a gatefold landscape convey his trips to existence.

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By 1548, there were less than 500 left. • In 1510, the Spaniards began to ship African slaves to Hispaniola, to replace the dwindling numbers of Tainos. DECISIVE BATTLE After recovering from illness, Columbus learned that the most powerful Taino caciques had joined together and raised a huge army, thousands strong. In March 1495, he set off to fight them. His 200 Spanish soldiers were vastly outnumbered, but they had superior weapons and devastated the Taino army. THUNDER-STICKS The battle began with the roar of musketeers firing their matchlock guns.

QUADRANT (FIRST USED SEA 1450S) AT This tip was aimed at a star or the Sun. Mirrors A sextant was quicker to use than a crossstaff, and more accurate. Moveable bar SEXTANT (INVENTED 1730S) Scale CROSS-STAFF (INVENTED EARLY 1500S) Sextant The navigator looked through the sextant’s eyepiece at the horizon. Then he adjusted a mirror, fixed to a moving bar, until it reflected the Sun or a star onto a half-transparent mirror in front of his eyepiece. The angle of the bar, read off the scale, told him his latitude.

Spanish doubloons Much of the Aztec and Inca gold was made into coins like these doubloons, which are decorated with the royal lion and castle of Spain. 47 Index A Africa, 6, 9, 10, 11 Ailly, Pierre d’, 12 Alexander VI, Pope, 29 alligators, 40 alphabet, 46 armour, 35 Atahualpa, Emperor, 47 Atlantic Ocean, 10, 13, 23 Aztecs, 46, 47 B Bahamas, 24 Balboa, Vasco de, 44 baptisms, 29 Barcelona, 28, 29 battles, 40 Behaim, Martin, 13 bells, 25 Bible, 13 biscuits, 41 Bobadilla, F. de, 39, 40 body decorations, 25 breastplates, 35 C Cabot, John, 44 caciques, 32, 33, 34 calendar, 46 Canary Islands, 18, 20 cannibals, 32 cannons, 16, 27 canoes, 25, 27, 42 Caonabo, 32, 35 Cape of Good Hope, 15 captives, 24, 28, 34 caravans, 9 caravels, 7, 17 Carib people, 27, 32 Caribbean Ocean, 26–27, 29, 40 cassava, 24, 34 Cathay, see China Central America, 40, 41, 46–47 Ceylon, see Sri Lanka chilli peppers, 24 China (Cathay), 7, 8, 44 Christianity, 15, 22, 46 converts, 11, 34, 47 Christopher, Saint, 13 chronometers, 45 Cipangu, see Japan coat of arms, 29 codices, 46 colonies, 28, 33 Columbus, Bartolomé, 34, 35, 38, 41, 43 Columbus, Christopher: death, 43 early voyages, 10–11 first voyage, 18–27 fourth voyage, 40–43 homecomings, 28–29, 35, 39, 43 illness, 32, 34, 38, 42 imprisonment, 39 planning, 12–13, 14 preparations, 16–17 second voyage, 32 signature of, 29 sponsors, 14–15 third voyage, 36–39 Columbus, Diego, 34, 39 Columbus, Ferdinand, 41 compass, 11, 21 Acknowledgments The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their images: Position key: c=centre; b=bottom; l=left; r=right; t=top conquistadores, 46–47 Cortés, Hernán, 46 Cosa, Juan de la, 16 crew, 16–17 crossbows, 35 cross-staffs, 45 crusades, 9 Cuba, 26, 27, 32, 42 DE dead reckoning, 21 Dias, Bartolomeu, 15 diseases, 33, 41, 47 dogs, 25, 35 doubloons, 47 Earth, 13, 39, 45 Earthly Paradise, 39 eclipse, lunar, 43 encomienda system, 38 exploration, 6–17, 44 F falconets, 16, 17 Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain, 14–15, 28–29, 32, 38–40 flamingoes, 33 fleas, 41 flies, 41 fogón, 16, 22 food, 22, 24, 41 forts, 27, 30 friars, 46 G Genoa, 10 globes, 13 gods, Aztec, 46 gold, 11, 25, 26, 29, 33, 35, 47 Gold Coast, 11 Granada, 14 Guinea, 10, 11 HI Haiti, 26 hammocks, 26 helmets, 35 Henry VII, King, 44 Henry the Navigator, 9 Hispaniola, 28, 29, 42 AKG London: 10tl, 26bl, 44bc; Bibliotheque Nationale 8br, 9tr; British Library 11t; Erich Lessing 29br; Sevilla Biblioteca Columbina 12cl; Veintimilla 47cl; Bridgeman Art Library, London / New York: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, Spain 46tr; British Library 6–7, 9b; Library of Congress, Washington 35 cr; British Library, London: 34cl, 45b; British Museum: 8bl, 12tl, 15cr, 47br; INAH NO conquest of, 35 discovery of, 26–27 rebellion, 38, 39 return to, 30–35 Hojeda, Alonso de, 33, 35 homes, 25 horses, 34 hourglass, 21 hurricanes, 40 Native Americans, 25, 33, 37, 46–47 Navidad, 27, 30, 32 navigation, 11, 21, 45 Niña, 16, 17, 19, 20, 27, 32, 35 Niño, Juan, 17 North America, 44 Ottoman Empire, 9 I P Imago Mundi, 12 Incas, 46, 47 India, 8 Indian Ocean, 6, 7, 15 Indies, 8 Isabela (town), 33, 38 Isabella, Queen, see Ferdinand & Isabella Pacific Ocean, 44, 45 Palos, 16–17, 18, 28 Panama, 44 parrots, 28 pearls, 37 Peru, 46, 47 Philippines, 44, 45 pineapples, 24 Pinta, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 28 Pinzón, Martín, 17, 18, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28 Pinzón, Vincente, 17, 19 Pizarro, Francisco, 47 Polo, Marco, 7, 8–9, 12 Porras, Francisco de, 42, 43 portolan map, 11 Portugal, 6, 9, 10–11, 14, 15 Prester John, 9 pumps, 16, 41 JKL Jamaica, 32, 42–43 Japan (Cipangu), 8, 14, 18, 24, 26 jewellery, gold, 47 John II, King, 14 Kublai Khan, 8 La Capitana, 42 Lisbon, 10–11 logbook, 19, 20–21 lombards, 16 looms, 47 M Machu Pichu, 47 Magellan, Ferdinand, 44, 45 maize, 24, 47 matchlocks, 34, 35 Maya, 40, 46, 47 Mendez, Diego, 42, 43 Mexico, 46, 47 Moctezuma, 46 monkeys, 38 Moors, 14 mosquitoes, 33 Muslims, 9, 14, 35 mutinies, 22, 42, 43 QR quadrants, 45 quipus, 46 rats, 41 rebellions, 38, 39 record keeping, 46 rudders, 20 S San Salvador, 23 Santa Domingo, 38, 39 40bl, 46bl; Corbis UK Ltd: 36–37; Bettmann 32cl; The Art Archive: Palazzo Farnese Caprarola/Dagli Orti 44br; Mary Evans Picture Library: 18–19dps, 39tl; De Lorgues 43br; Glasgow University Library: Ms Hunter 46cr; INAH: 40bl, 46bl; Katz Pictures: The Mansell Collection 14bl, 15tl, 30–31; Museum of Mankind: 47t; Museum of Order St.

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