Communication and Culture in War and Peace by Colleen A. Roach

By Colleen A. Roach

By means of exploring the function of either tradition and the mass media, this quantity fills a spot within the literature on conflict and peace. remarkable students offer an outline of severe mass media examine and open up totally new views at the ongoing debate over communications concerns in struggle and peace. The contributions compile universal topics together with the military-industrial-communications advanced, cultural imperialism and transnational regulate of communications. a number of views are lined, reminiscent of gender concerns, language research and bureaucratization.

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In the recent Persian Gulf War, for instance, one wonders if the media's demonization of Saddam Hussein and degradation of Islamic/Arab culture would have been so effective if the American public knew more about the history of Middle-Eastern civilizations. As Galtung (1989b) notes, "peaceful education, including socialization, would probably imply exposure to multiple cultures and then a dialogue" (p. 32). The dialogue between cultures Galtung speaks of would have been very difficult for American journalists covering the Gulf War, since few if any spoke Arabic.

That violence on television does lead to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the programs" (Gerbner, 1988, pp. 23-25). Of special relevance to issues of peace were several studies indicating that dramatic violence tended to cultivate "a sense of hierarchical values and forces," (Gerbner, 1988, p. 25) was related to "feelings of apprehension, insecurity and the necessity of war," (Gerbner, 1988, p. 25) and was found to lead to "mistrust . . a desire to have protective weapons and alienation" (Gerbner, 1988, p.

The argument that people are biologically or genetically programmed for war was soundly rejected by a group of prominent biologists and social scientists participating in a meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression in 1986. The meeting adopted a widely circulated document on the question, known as the Seville Statement on Violence. Among its conclusions: It is scientifically incorrect to say that we have inherited a tendency to make war from our animal ancestors. . Warfare is a peculiarly human phenom­ enon and does not occur in other animals.

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