Conflict and Cooperation in the Gulf Region by Joseph Kostiner

By Joseph Kostiner

This publication analyzes 4 major episodes of clash and protection that have affected the Gulf sector over the past 3 many years: the Iran-Iraq warfare (1980-1988), which effected the Gulf Cooperation Council from an in depth, neighborly distance; the Iraq-Kuwait conflict (1990-1991), which constituted an try and invade the GCC and get rid of certainly one of its member states, Kuwait; next makes an attempt to reestablish a neighborhood inter-state balance within the Gulf (during the mid-1990s, nearly) and the struggle of Islamic terrorism opposed to Saudi Arabia.

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However, the Ottomans permitted the Shi‘i holy cities of Najaf and Karbala – containing the respective shrines of Imam Ali and Imam Hussein – to operate as semi-autonomous regions. This changed in 1968 with the new Ba’ath resurgence in Baghdad. The secular Ba’ath regime shut down a theological college in Najaf, harassed Shi‘i ulama, and permitted the sale of alcohol in the Shi’a holy cities. The Shi‘i clergy resisted and were repressed. In the late 1950s, a secret Shi‘i resistance group called Al Daawa al Islamiya (The Islamic Resistance Call) was formed.

Abdulghani, pp. 196-200. 48 Part One: The Iran-Iraq War Arab cultural heritage. Further, they viewed Khomeini’s radical ideology as a fanatical Shi‘i strain of Islam, at odds with the true beliefs of the religion. On a pragmatic level, Iraqi Ba’athist ideology relied on Arab nationalism to unite a diverse Iraqi population threatened by sectarian, ethnic, and religious divisions. The Ba’athist principles appealed to a greater Arab nation, which could unite Shi‘i and Kurdish majorities behind a ruling Sunni minority.

Severe border clashes followed this declaration, and on 19 September 1980 Iran announced that it had lost two fighter planes in clashes with Iraq along the Shatt alArab. The Iranian military reserves were activated and heavy fighting was reported along the Shatt al-Arab. On 21 September 1980, the Iraqis shelled the Iranian port of Khorramshahr, and Iranian planes attacked Basra. By 22 September 1980, Iraq had launched a full air invasion into Iran, striking at key strategic military locations. In September 1980, Iran’s leadership was still trying to consolidate its domestic power.

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