By Mazen M. Sinjab
This ebook offers entire assurance of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), an incredible administration modality for keratoconus and ectatic corneal issues. All points are coated, together with refractive and non-refractive surgical procedure symptoms, versions of software, safeguard, efficacy, functionality, consequence measures, proof of CXL, problems, contraindications, use in young ones, and controversies. The dialogue displays the massive development that has been made in figuring out of the modality due to the fact its improvement within the past due Nineteen Nineties. special realization is paid to new suggestions, altering surgical options and symptoms, the newest evidence-based technological know-how and learn, and the way forward for CXL. counsel is usually supplied at the use of CXL together with different modalities, corresponding to LASIK, PRK, intracorneal ring implantation and others. The textual content is followed via a variety of fine quality colour illustrations. Corneal Collagen move Linking will give you the reader with a legitimate take hold of of the method and its use and may confidently additionally function a stimulus to additional learn and advances.
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Additional info for Corneal Collagen Cross Linking
Round. The steepest part of the cornea (hot spot) is round and often decentered. Oval. The steepest part of the cornea (hot spot) is oval and may be centered or decentered. Superior steep (SS). The steepest part of the cornea is localized in the upper part of the cornea. Fig. 5 Horizontal symmetric bowtie indicating against-the-rule astigmatism 30 Fig. 6 Oblique symmetric bowtie indicating oblique astigmatism Fig. 7 Enantiomorphism. M. Sinjab 2 Patterns and Classifications in Ectatic Corneal Diseases 31 Fig.
SS superior steep, IS inferior steep, SB symmetric bowtie, SB/SRAX symmetric bowtie with skewed steepest radial axis index, AB/IS asymmetric bowtie/inferior steep, AB/SS asymmetric bowtie/superior steep, AB/SRAX asymmetric bowtie with skewed steepest radial axis index Inferior steep (IS). The steepest part of the cornea is localized inferior to the apex of the cornea. Irregular. Corneal surface has no particular shape, that is, in this pattern steep areas are mixed with flat areas. Symmetric bowtie (SB).
2. Irregular patterns (Fig. 16). They are seen in abnormal distorted corneas. 3. Isolated island (Fig. 17, white arrow). It is encountered in normal corneas with minor astigmatism as well as abnormal distorted corneas with central or paracentral protrusion. M. Sinjab Parameters (BFTE Float Mode) Roughly speaking, values within the 5-mm central circle > +12 μm and > +15 μm on the anterior and posterior elevation maps, respectively, are considered as abnormal . According to Holladay, the correspondence of a hot spot on the tangential map with the lowest value in the relative pachymetry map and the > +15 μm on the posterior elevation map diagnoses forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC) .