By Michael Alpert
Этот текст - об испанском тайном иудаизме и инквизиции, стремившейся искоренить " иудейскую ересь " среди крещенных евреев и потомков испанских евреев, крещенных между 1391 и 1492 гг. В течение столетий они тайно твердо придерживались веры своих предков в Испании, которая была полностью католической. В книге приводятся примеры частных случаев из жизни крипто-иудеев на протяжении 250-летней кампании инквизиции: мужчин и женщин, старых и молодых, богатых и бедных, которые были арестованы, содержались в тюрьмах, подвергались допросам и пыткам в поисках доказательства их скрытого иудаизма. Используя документы допросов заключенных и их признаний, автор анализирует характер испанского иудаизма, ритуалов, домашней жизни и тайной веры, которая упорно сохранялась многими поколениями. Крипто-иудаизм отмечался испанскими властями, как серьезная угроза даже в середине XVIII в. пока инквизиция, в конце концов, одержала победу.Образцы сканов:
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Additional info for Crypto-Judaism and the Spanish Inquisition
22 The impression of care conveyed by the precise figures given by Andrés Bernáldez, the observant parish priest of Los Palacios, is underlined when he gives a detailed statistical list of the numbers of emigrants and the routes taken by Jews who crossed into Portugal in the summer of 1492: From Benavente to Braganza 3,000 From Zamora to Miranda 30,000 From Ciudad Rodrigo to Vilar Formoso 35,000 From Alcántara to Marvão 15,000 From Badajoz to Elvas 10,000 According to Bernáldez, the figures had been rounded down, so that at least 93,000 Jews left Spain for Portugal, from Castile alone.
Nevertheless, Lea gives the figure of 31,398 reconciled or burnt at the stake or in effigy until 1720, a figure markedly larger than the one given by the Marquis de Pombal, the Portuguese minister who abolished the Inquisition, for the period 1536 to 1732: 24,068 and 1,447 burnt at the stake, a total of 25,515. But even supposing that Pombal’s figures include merely the Judaizers and not the others punished by the Inquisition, his figures do not appear sufficiently high. 30 A more recent calculation produces 40,026 trials in the documents preserved from the courts of Lisbon, Coimbra and Evora.
The exchange worked in reverse also. The offer of money by the New Christians to a permanently needy treasury smoothed the path to the granting of pardons. The pardon of 1577 was conceded by the Crown in exchange for a quarter of a million ducats. The converts were promised ten years free of pressure. Even if convicted by the Inquisition for the crime of Judaizing, their offence would be considered as the first one, so that they would not lose their property, an additional punishment almost always imposed on a second offender.